Pilot Testing A Community-Based Diabetes Health Promotion Intervention: A Study in a Rural Community in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Keywords:Community participation, diabetes, health promotion, fasting blood sugar, family involvement
Introduction: In Thailand, the demand for adult health care has risen due to the rapidly increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus; therefore, it is challenging to successfully implement diabetes management in rural areas due to a shortage of doctors and nurses. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a health promotion intervention developed by community village health volunteers (VHVs). Method: Twenty patients with diabetes and their family support persons living in Talat Khwan Sub-district, Chiang Mai, Thailand, participated in a diabetes health promotion intervention. The intervention consisted of diabetes education, a health campaign, and home visits. The outcomes measured were 1) fasting blood sugar levels (FBS) and 2) family involvement in health promotion behaviors using the Family Involvement Questionnaire. Results: After the intervention, FBS and family involvement were significantly improved (ES = 1.40, t = 2.76, p < .05) and ES = 1.65, t = 3.82, p < .001, respectively), indicating that the diabetes health promotion intervention improved glycemic control and enhanced family involvement. Recommendation: Further study is needed to determine the sustainability of diabetes health-promoting behaviors as a result of the intervention
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas 9th edition 2019 [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Mar 6]. Available from: https://diabetesatlas.org/en/
(2) Division of Non-Communicable Diseases. Number of deaths for leading causes of death in Thailand between 2016 and 2018 [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 19]. Available from: http://www.thaincd.com/2016/mission/documents.php?tid=32&gid=1-020
(3) Somanawat J, Saramunee K, Chanasopon S. Process, quality and challenges of diabetes care in primary care: a study of district health network in Thailand. Prim Health Care Res Dev [Internet]. 2020 Oct [cited 2020 Apr 19];21:e46. Available from: https://pubmed-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.libproxy.umassd.edu/33106200/ DOI: 10.1017/S1463423620000468.
(4) Kitreerawutiwong N, Jordan S, Hughes D. Facility type and primary care performance in sub-district health promotion hospitals in Northern Thailand [Internet]. PLOS ONE. 2017 Mar [cited 2020 Apr 19];12(3):e0174055. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174055
(5) Preechasuk L, Sriussadaporn P, Likitmaskul S. The obstacles to diabetes self-management education and support from healthcare professionals’ perspectives: a nationwide survey [Internet]. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2019 May [cited 2020 Apr 19];12:717-727. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S195916
(6) TK-Subdistrict Health Promotion Hospital. Summary of operations report. TK-Subdistrict Health Promotion Hospital (TK-SDHPH). Unpublished data; 2016.
(7) Oba N, McCaffrey R, Choonhapran P, Chutug P, Rueangram S. Development of a community participation program for diabetes mellitus prevention in a primary care unit, Thailand [Internet]. Nurs Health Sci. 2011 Aug [cited 2020 April 12th];13(3):352–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00627.x
(8) On the R, Moolsart S, Pitchayapinyo P. The development of a home visit model based on participation between professional nurses and village health volunteers for type ii diabetes [Internet]. J Nurs Health Care. 2016 Oct [Cited 2020 April 25th];34(4):19–27. Available from: https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jnat-ned/issue/view/7051by selecting PDF link
(9) Teachasub J, Boonchiang W, Narin R. Development of community participation caring model for people with diabetes mellitus [Internet]. Nurs J. 2020 Apr [Cited 2020 April 25th]; 47(2): 111–21. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/cmunursing/article/view/241754 by selecting PDF link
(10) Wayobut R, Sutra P. Development of a practice guideline for type-2 diabetes patients through family and community participation at Nong Doon Village, Muang District, Mahasarakham Province [Internet]. J Nurs Div. 2018 May [Cited 2020 April 25th];41(2):72–83. Available from: https://thaidj.org/index.php/JND/article/view/3038
(11) Yazdanpanah B, Safari M, Yazdanpanah S, Angha P, Karami M, Emadi M, et al. The effect of participatory community-based diabetes cares on the control of diabetes and its risk factors in Western Suburb of Yasouj, Iran [Internet]. Health Educ Res. 2012 Oct [Cited 2020 April 25th]; 27(5):794–803. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cys079
(12) Thatsaeng B, LeSeure P. Effects of community participatory health promotion intervention development on knowledge and self-care behavior among patients with diabetes: a case study at Talat Khwan-Subdistrict, Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province. J Nurses Assoc Thail North Off. 202;1(9): 64-75.
(13) Ursachi G, Horodnic IA, Zait A. How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators. Procedia Econ Finance [Internet]. 2015 [Cited 2020 April 25th];20:679–86. Available from: https://www-sciencedirect-com.libproxy.umassd.edu/science/article/pii/S2212567115001239
(14) Balagopal P, Kamalamma N, Patel TG, Misra R. A community-based participatory diabetes prevention and management intervention in rural India using community health workers [Internet]. Diabetes Educ. 2012 Nov 1 [Cited 2020 Apr 25]; 38(6):822–34. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721712459890
(15) Phongphetdi B. Participatory community-based in promoting self-care of patients with chronic diseases to prevent stroke [Internet]. Thai J Cardio-Thorac Nurs. 2018 [Cited 2020 Apr 25]; 29(2):12–31. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/journalthaicvtnurse/article/view/164275
(16) Thongsai S. The application of proactive diabetes care plan to enhance diabetes care sustainability in the community [Internet]. J Nurs Div. 2011 [Cited 2020 April 25th]; 28(2):78–84. Available from: https://kmnurse.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/journal38v3.pdf.
(17) Diabetes Association of Thailand. Clinical practice guideline for diabetes 2017 [Internet]. 2017 [Cited 2020 April 25th]. Available from: https://www.dmthai.org/index.php/knowledge/healthcare-providers/cpg/443-guideline-diabetes-care-2017
(18) Ethan P, Somrongthong R, Ahmed J, Kumar R, Chapman RS. Factors related to physical activity among the elderly population in rural Thailand [Internet]. J Prim Care Community Health. 2017 Apr [Cited 2020 Apr 25];8(2):71–76. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/2150131916675899
(19) Baig AA, Benitez A, Quinn MT, Burnet DL. Family interventions to improve diabetes outcomes for adults [Internet]. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015 Sep [Cited 2020 April 25th];1353(1):89–112. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4624026/ DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12844