Intervention to Reduce Stress Levels in People with HIV/AIDS: Literature Review
People living with HIV/AIDS experience a variety of complex problems, not only physical problems related to the condition of HIV disease, but also psychosocial problems related to HIV disclosure, stigma, social isolation and discrimination that can cause anxiety and cause high stress levels.The conditions will gave the negative impact on both physical and mental health. The negative impact of stress can lead to depression, giving rise to an attitude of non-compliance with treatment, increased risk behavior for HIV transmission and faster disease progression, which in turn will worsen the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS. Several studies have been conducted to found appropriate interventions to reduce stress levels in people with HIV/AIDS. This article is a literature review of several interventions to reduce stress levels in people with HIV/AIDS, included Jacobson's Progressive Muscle Relaxation (JPMR), Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Reiki therapy. Literature search was carried out from databases such as Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, Proquest, Sciene Direct, with limited years of article publication in the last 10 years (2008-2018). Based on the review, it was found that Jacobson's Progressive Muscle Relaxation (JPMR) intervention; Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Reiki Therapy shows very significant results in decreasing stress levels in people with HIV conducted in three studies with different interventions.
Keyword: Stress, HIV/AIDS, intervention
1. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York (1984), USA: Springer Publishing Company.
2. Lumban Gaol, N. T. Teori Stres: Stimulus, Respons, dan Transaksional. Buletin Psikologi, 2016; 24(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.22146/bpsi.11224
3. Kupriyanov, R., & Zhdanov, R. The eustress concept: Problems and outlooks. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 2014; 11(2), 179–185. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjms.2014.11.2.8433
4. Gousse, Y., Bruno, D., Joseph, M. A., Afable, A., Cohen, M. H., Weber, K. M., … Schwartz, R. M. (Correction to: Examining the Associations Between Immigration Status and Perceived Stress Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women (Journal of Community Health, (2018), (1-10), 10.1007/s10900-018-0537-6). Journal of Community Health, 43(6), 1182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-018-0548-3
5. Remien, R. H., Exner, T., Kertzner, R. M., Ehrhardt, A. A., Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Johnson, M. O., … Kelly, J. A. Depressive symptomatology among HIV-positive women in the era of HAART: A stress and coping model. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2006; 38(3–4), 275–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-006-9083-y
6. Jackson, T. D., Hobfoll, S. E., Jackson, A. P., & Lavin, J. Life stressors, mastery, and perceived partner engagement in HIV-Risk behavior. Journal of Community Psychology, 2001; 29(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(200101)29:1<1::AID-JCOP1>3.0.CO;2-N
7. Lopez, C. R., Antoni, M. H., Seay, J., Potter, J., O’Sullivan, M., Fletcher, M. A., … Whitehead, N. Stress Management, Depression, and Immune Status in Lower-Income Racial/Ethnic Minority Women Co-infected with HIV and HPV. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 2013; 18(1), 37–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/jabr.12003
8. Gard, T. L., Hoover, D. R., Shi, Q., Cohen, M. H., Mutimura, E., Adedimeji, A. A., & Anastos, K. The impact of HIV status, HIV disease progression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms on the health-related quality of life of Rwandan women genocide survivors. Quality of Life Research, 2013; 22(8), 2073–2084. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-012-0328-y
9. Meade, C. S., Wang, J., Lin, X., Wu, H., & Poppen, P. J. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: A test of cognitive appraisal theory. AIDS and Behavior, 2010; 14(2), 328–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-008-9494-x
10. Derlega, V. J., Winstead, B. A., Greene, K., Serovich, J., & Elwood, W. N. Perceived HIV-related stigma and HIV disclosure to relationship partners after finding out about the seropositive diagnosis. Journal of Health Psychology, 2002; 7, 415–432.
11. Evans, D. L., Leserman, J., Perkins, D. O., Stern, R. A., Murphy, C., Zheng, B., et al. Severe life stress as a predictor of early disease progression in HIV infection. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1997; 154, 630–634.
12. Kolodziej, J. Effects of stress on HIV infection progression. HIV & AIDS Review, 2015; 15(1), 13-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hivar.2015.07.003
13. Ali, A., Weiss, T. R., Dutton, A., McKee, D., Jones, K. D., Kashikar-Zuck, S., … Shapiro, E. D. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Adolescents with Functional Somatic Syndromes: A Pilot Cohort Study. Journal of Pediatrics, 2017; 183, 184–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.12.053
14. Center for Mindfulness Mindfulness Based-Programs. 2017; Retrieved from https://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/mindfulness-based-programs/mbsr-courses/about-mbsr/
15. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York. 2013: Bantam Books.
16. Sheldon, L. A. J. S., Balletto, B. L., Donahue, M. L., Feulner, M. M., Cruess, D. G., Blotcher, E. S., … Carey, M. P. Mindfulness ‑ Based Interventions for Adults Living with HIV / AIDS : A Systematic Review and Meta ‑ analysis. AIDS and Behavior, 2018; (0123456789). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-018-2236-9
17. Duncan, L. G., Moskowitz, J. T., Neilands, T. B., Dilworth, S. E., Hecht, F. M., & Johnson, M. O. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for HIV treatment side effects: A randomized, wait-list controlled trial. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2012; 43(2), 161–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.04.007
18. Kushner, K., & Marnocha, M. Meditation and Relaxation. Evidence-Based Adjunctive Treatments. 2008; Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012088520-6.50010-X
19. Wildmind (2007). Meditation Guides. Retrieved from https://www.wildmind.org/background
20. Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder. Emotion, 2010; 10(1), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018441
21. Rand, W. L. (2005). The Reiki touch workbook. Louisville, CO.2005: Sounds True.
22. Noh, M. S., Rueda, S., Bekele, T., Fenta, H., Gardner, S., Hamilton, H., … Rourke, S. B. Depressive symptoms, stress and resources among adult immigrants living with HIV. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 2012; 14(3), 405–412. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-011-9515-0
23. Manjushambika, R., Prasanna, B., Vijayaraghavan, R., & Sushama, B. (2017). Effectiveness of Jacobson ’ s Progressive Muscle Relaxation ( Jpmr ) on Educational Stress among School Going Adolescents.Agarwal, R. P., Kumar, A., & Lewis, J. E. A Pilot Feasibility and Acceptability Study of Yoga / Meditation on the Quality of Life and Markers of Stress in Persons Living with HIV, 2015; 21(3), 152–158. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2014.0112
24. Bommareddi, P., Valsaraj, B. P., & Shalini. Jacobson’s Progressive Muscle Relaxation (JPMR) Training to Reduce Stress among People Living with HIV. International Journal of Nursing Education, 2015; 7(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-9357.2015.00005.7
25. Jose, R., & Almeida, V. D. Effectiveness of Jacobson ’ s Progressive Muscle Relaxation ( JPMR ) on Blood Pressure and Health Related Stress Level among Patients with Hypertension in a Selected Hospital of Mangalore, 2013; 5(2), 171–176.
26. Vedhara (Eds.), Psychosocial and biomedical interactions inHIV infection (pp. 31–60). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic.
27. Wimberly, A. S., Engstrom, M., Layde, M., & McKay, J. R. A randomized trial of yoga for stress and substance use among people living with HIV in reentry. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 2018; 94, 97–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2018.08.001